Traditional Rug Cleaning & Repair
1.Inspection – Each area rug is carefully hand inspected for tears, holes, dye fade, abrasions and pet contamination.
Plus all dye colors are tested for stability prior to cleaning.
2.Vaccuum – Vacuum both sides well.
3.Washing - Each area rug is hand cleaned one at a time with the appropriate method for your particular area rug. Most area rugs are washed using Wool Safe Shampoo approved by Aria Oriental Rug.
4.Rinse & Dry – All excess moisture is extracted and a rinse is applied to return the area rug fibers to their natural state.
Area rugs are then speed dried, in a state-of-the-art drying facility using heat, air movement and dehumidification.
This environment is controlled to make sure each and every area rug is completely dry before final inspection.
5.Fringe Cleaning – All area rug fringe is hand detailed using specialized techniques and detergents to return the area rug finge to its original state
6.Final Inspection – As a last step, each area rug is again inspected to make sure that it’s thoroughly clean and completely dry. It is then rolled and tied before being returned.
When a pet has an accident , the stain must be treated correctly or the bothersome stain becomes even more of a mess. Anytime you need pet stain and odor removal care , our experts are ready to work to get your carpet clean and odor free. You can be sure that we'll remedy any of your pet stain and odor removal concerns.
Our Cleaning experts use advanced pet stain removers that will completely eliminate pet stains without harming your valuable Carpets and furnishings. This results in a cleaner looking and fresher smelling home in which you can welcome your guests with confidence.
Contact us when you need expert help in cleaning pet stains and removing pet odors. You can rely on Aria Oriental Rug to bring the freshness back into your home.
Soaking the carpet, in order to release the odor and stain from the fabric
Washing the carpet with a gentle enzyme solution. The enzyme solution, assists in removing any remaining odors and stains that are left in the rug.
Multi-step, thorough rinsing process.
Inspecting the rug. ( Sometimes if the rug still smells we will repeat the process all over again ).
We are also inspecting the colors. The urine can sometimes oxidize the color and in that case we can do color restoration
Pet odor is a very common problem. At Aria Oriental Rug we can help you deal with your pet challenges. From minor problems to major headaches – we can help find that solution that works best for you.
The problem with pet odor is that it can be much deeper than it first appears. Pet urine can easily soak through the backing of the carpet into the padding underneath.
in more severe cases the urine can penetrate into the sub-floor beneath the padding. This creates a problem that is multi-layered.
The urine also provides for the growth of bacteria. This in turn contributes to a worsening of the odor problem and can contribute to permanent color loss of the carpet fiber.
At Aria Oriental Rug we offer a range of solutions to help you with your pet odor problems. In the long run, however, it may be more a matter of proper maintenance instead of total elimination.
After all, we love our pets and want to keep them a part of our family.
Pet ownership adds to the challenge of maintaining a clean and healthy home. We can help you meet those challenges so call us today.
This page discusses some of the kinds of damage that can affect new and old handwoven rugs. If buying an older rug, be sure to inspect it carefully for any of these conditions.
A female clothing moth laid eggs in the pile of this 10 year old Tabriz, the eggs hatched, and the larvae ate a good chunk of the nap as they grew and prepared to metamorphose into adults.
This Tabriz has a wool pile and cotton warp and weft. The wool was much tastier than the cotton, and the feeding larvae cleaned off the nap but left the cotton foundation untouched. You can see the ghostly remnant of the design under the warps and wefts; the larvae only ate the nap--the bottom part of the knot still exists on the back of the rug.
The skeletal appearance of the bald patch in this rug is very typical of bad moth damage. This rug could be repaired by reweaving, but the repair would be expensive since you would have to pay a specialist craftsperson western labor rates to redo work that had originally cost $4 or $5 dollars a day when the rug was woven. Rarely does it make economic sense to reweave more than a few square inches of moth damage.
This picture shows the back of a different area of the same rug pictured above. Here young moth larvae (little white worm-like critters) crawled under the edge of the rug, and began to eat the woolen knots from the back. This kind of damage is almost always limited to 12" or 15" in from the edge of the rug--the larvae don't usually travel further under the rug.
This composite picture shows the wildlife at work on a Sarouk (on the left), and closeups of an adult clothing moth, naked moth larvae, and a pupal cocoon (on the right) with pennies for scale. You can see the cobwebby filaments often left by the larvae as they feed on the rug prior to building cocoons. The brownish-black ends of the moth larvae are the heads with their hard mouth parts. The larvae feed by clipping off wool fibers and masticating them. The granular, sandy looking junk at the bottom of the photo on the left is moth larvae excrement. Often it's the same color as the wool the larvae ate!
In many cases moth damage is not evident from the face of the rug. From the face the nap looks fine, it's just that the back of the knot holding the pile into the rug has been eaten away! Even so, a rug with this kind of damage can be quite presentable and useable. You would think you could just pluck the nap from the face of the rug in chunks, but this is not so. The individual shoots of yarn that form the pile interlock with each other to resist shedding.
Moth damage like this (carpet beetle damage looks almost identical) doesn't need a "repair" in the usual sense--the rug looks fine from the face. Small areas of moth damage on the back of a rug are probably best ignored (as long as there are no larvae still munching away!). Large patches of damage are sometimes latexed, with the idea that the latex spread over the damaged area will glue in the pile. The efficacy of this kind of repair is debatable. Once applied, latex is almost impossible to remove. The problem is that latex gets harder and harder as it ages, and sometimes causes fibers to which it's been applied to break if the fibers are manipulated (as in folding or rolling a rug).
If you are inspecting a used or older rug with an eye toward buying it, be sure to fold over the edges and check for this kind of semi-hidden damage!
This closeup shows the face of a Hamadan rug with a fair bit of color run: the red dye has bled into the ivory field. This kind of damage can happen to any sort of rug, although it is a little more common with country or village types. Color run can happen to "vegetable" dyed rugs as easily as to synthetic dyed rugs; actually, good chrome (synthetic) dyes are more resistant to color run than some vegetable or aniline dyes.
If color run is going to happen, it usually happens early in the life of a rug. Most rugs are water-washed as soon as they're taken from the looms, and sometimes one color (usually red, sometimes black, rarely blue or pastel shades) will bleed in this initial water wash. Most rug dyes are acid-fast in the sense that an acidic environment helps stabilize the dye and reinforce the bond of the dyestuff to the wool. Run color is usually caused by the washwater being basic in pH. The alkalinity of the wash makes susceptible colors bleed. One bit of "old wives" advice is to add a little white vinegar to the water if you're going to wash your rug. This makes the washwater more acidic and lessens the chances of running a dye. (Here's more information about cleaning Oriental rugs.)
A problem is that the initial wash that caused a color to run is often fixitive: the color bled initially, but now is more stable. This makes color run very difficult to remove. The rug could be chemically stripped, but this usually affects other colors, and sometimes is so harsh as to affect the strength and appearance of the wool itself (you can strip color from a rug with a strong alkali like caustic soda, but the soda can partially dissolve the sheath of the wool fiber, changing its texture and reflectivity).
The best advice is to learn to recognize color run, and to avoid buying a rug that's badly run. The run is not "surplus dye dust;" the run won't "fade away in a few months;" color run can't be permanently fixed by camouflaging the run area with powdered chalk.
Once you've been sensitized to seeing color run you can find it in many rugs (try looking at Belouch and Afghans!). We've knowingly purchased (and sold) many rugs with color run because there was something else so desirable about the rug that we liked it in spite of the color run. The touchstone here is obviousness. If the run is so apparent that you immediately notice it instead of the overall integrity of the colors and design, the rug should probably be passed over, or purchased at a big discount. If you have to look closely to find color run, ignore it as unimportant.
Many kinds of rugs want to curl their edges under. Most often this tendency increases as the rug becomes more tightly knotted, and the effect is even more pronounced if the rug is both tightly knotted and thickly napped (like some contemporary Bijars).
In a rug like this, the width at the base of the foundation is actually less than the width at the surface of the pile. This is because the yarn that makes up the pile is tightly compressed where it is knotted at the foundation, but opens up as it is unconstrained at the surface of the rug.
If you measured carefully enough, you would find that each knot element is slightly wedge shaped, with the apex of the wedge at the base of the rug. The width of each knot element at the very top of the pile tends to push its neighbors outward, and this makes the rug want to curl its edges under. It is often easier to roll up a fine, thick rug with the pile facing outward (rather than inward) because of the natural tendency of the rug to curl to its back.
This fine Isfahan (wool on silk warp and weft) from Iran has a very badly curled edge. The curl in this Isfahan is partly caused by the wedge effect typical of fine rugs, but in this rug the primary cause is by too much tension in the weft strings (the wefts run across the width of the rug) in the area of the curl. A good weaver needs to continually adjust tensions as s(he) weaves to avoid pulling the edges of the rug under.
This same Isfahan has curl problems in other places, like this corner.
Curled edges and corners are real problems. It is impossible to train the edge to lay flat by uncurling it, forcing it against the floor, and stepping on it. To be permanently flat the edge needs to be slit in a number of spots to relieve the too-tight wefts, then carefully re-sewn to be strong enough to resist all the wear the edge binding absorbs.
Oriental rugs wear from the top down: over the decades the pile gets lower and lower. No matter how old and unusual, a rug looses value when the pile becomes so thin that warp and weft begin to show from the face of the rug. This old Mazlahan from Iran is nearing the end of its decorative life as the colored wool tufts rising from each knot gradually wear away.
There is no real repair for this condition. Usually a largish area of the pile will be very thin, and the labor to reweave the whole area would be prohibitively expensive. Even if the cost was not so high, it is very difficult to match texture and color when reweaving an area that is so thin. Often rewoven knots can't be tied as tightly and packed as densely as the original knots, and with the pile so thin, the top of the knot can be easily seen. The mismatch in appearance between the new knots and the original weave is often worse than living with the worn areas.
A common fixup for old, thin rugs is to color the exposed warp and weft to match the surrounding design, and in this way camouflage the very worn areas. Most often this is a quick and dirty job done with colored markers. The dyes used in the markers are nothing like wool dyes, and can fade, change shade, transfer to underlying wall-to-wall or floor, or even wash out if the rug is cleaned. Painting the face of a rug is not a horrible crime if it allows an otherwise tired and unappealing rug to find a good home and a few years more use (we've painted our share of old rugs). The key is full disclosure. Don't mistake the rug with colored-in warp and weft for a piece with original (even if millimetricaly thin) pile. Be careful if the old rug you're considering is very, very thin. The painted rug is worth a fraction of the piled rug.
This old Shirvan from the Caucasus has lots of problems, but the most damaging is probably fold wear. When this rug was woven, warp tensions got so uneven in one area that a wrinkle was woven into the rug. Such woven-in wrinkles are more often found in rugs made with wool warp and weft (because wool is so elastic), but they happen in cotton foundation rugs as well. The wrinkle made a ridge running in from one edge, forcing the nap and foundation upward. Because this wrinkle in the rug was higher than the surrounding area, it caught more foot traffic and wore more quickly. Not just the nap wore. When the nap was gone, traffic eventually began to wear through the foundation warp and weft. After 75 years' use, there are several holes and a long weak strip running across the rug.
At this point there is little repair possible for this kind of damage. When inspecting a rug for possible purchase, particularly if the rug is a villiage or country type woven on wool warp and weft, turn it over and look carefully for woven-in wrinkles or puckers. If wrinkles are present, best to pass the piece for another.
This old Kazak from the Caucasus has two big patches and several darns. Patch 1 is quite old, and may have been specially made to match the pattern lost to the hole. Warp and weft in this patch run in the same direction as the rug, and this patch is sewn into the rug. Still, note how the purple latchooked element in Patch 1 no longer matches the color of the continuing latchook in the main rug. The colors may have been the same when the patch was inserted, but over the years colors in the patch and colors in the rug aged differently, so now the patch is easy to pick up.
Patch two is much more recent and much more crudely done. It's a piece from a Hamadan rug (not a Kazak), and it's glued into the rug with its warp running at right angles to the warp of the main rug. From this picture of the back of the rug you can see how Patch 2 has been inserted into the rug and then reinforced with a scrap of burlap and latex cement (the two darned areas have similar reinforcements).
Two small holes near these patches have been "repaired" by simply darning the area with a back and forth stitch, much as your grandmother once darned socks. This makes a poor repair. The darned area is harder that the surrounding rug and doesn't match at all the texture of the main rug.
Look carefully (looking at the back of the rug is best) for patches, darns, joins, or other surgery done to any rug you are considering for purchase. Even if very well done, a patch or repair significantly diminishes the value of a rug.
Missing end borders and corners are among the most common problems we see with older rugs. Notice that the Hamadan rug on the left has three borders: an ivory main border and two identical flanking rust colored guard borders. Unfortunately, the structure at the end of the rug that tied the warps together so that knots could not slip off the warps and be lost wore away, and over time almost all of the guard border running across the end of the rug has disappeared. A common fix is for a repair person to ravel back the end of the rug so that all the end guard border is gone, then finish the end with a twist line or by overcasting. Many people don't realize that once their old rug was 2", 3", or 6" longer!
The Shiraz pictured on the right is in a bad way as well. Its corner is badly eroded (chewed by little puppy Fofo?), and the repair to this corner (inserting missing warp and reweaving) would cost several times what this small rug is worth.
If considering an older rug, check to see that all the rug is really there (that the multiple borders go all the way around the rug). A rug that has had its sides or ends reduced is worth substantially less than a rug that is complete.
Trust your luxurious Animal Skin Rugs to Aria Oriental Rug. We will gently and effectively clean and protect them for years to come. Our pH balanced Animal Skin Rugs lather emulsifies and holds soil for extraction. The finishing touch to clean is applying this unique lotion. It safely strengthens preserves and nourishes your valuable Animal Skin Rugs.
Don't let your rugs loose its beauty anymore. A frequent deep clean of your upholstery and animal skin rugs will ensure longer life and be healthier for you and your family. Call us today for free estimates on animal skin rug cleaning.
We're going to do a typical Oriental runner installation on a stairway. We'll be using these tools and materials
1. Cut pieces of tackless strip (usually available at Home Depot or Lowe's; comes in 4' lengths) about 1 1/2" narrower than the width of the runner. You need one piece at the back of each tread and one piece at the bottom of each riser. Mark the center of the pieces of tackless, and mark the center of the treads where the treads and risers meet at the back of the treads
2. Attach one tackless strip at the back of the first tread. The tackless should be about 1" out from the corner formed by the back of the tread and the bottom of the riser for thinner rugs, and as much as 2" out from the corner for very thick runners. Adjust as necessary. The strip should be centered on the mark you made in Step 1. The tacks in the strip should face back toward the riser
3. Attach one tackless strip at the bottom of the first riser. The tackless should be about 1" up from the corner formed by the back of the tread and the bottom of the riser for thinner rugs, and as much as 2" up from the corner for very thick runners. Adjust as necessary. The strip should be centered on the mark you made in Step 1. The tacks in the strip should face down toward the tread. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 for all the treads and risers to be covered by the runner
4. Cut a piece of carpet pad for each tread. The pieces of pad should be the same width as the tackless strip, and deep enough to butt against the tackless strip at the back of the tread and wrap down over the edge or "nose" of the tread. The pad should end short of the tackless on riser below the tread
5. Attach a piece of carpet pad to each tread. Center the pad and butt it against the tackless at the back of the tread. Fasten with a staple at the back corners and every 6" paralleling the tackless. Wrap the pad down over the nose of the tread and staple the corners and every 6" to the riser. Repeat for all the treads
6. Rub the pile of your runner with the palm of your hand. Notice that the pile lays smoothly in one direction. Face the rug with the pile laying toward you. You will install the runner with the far end at the top of the stairs. By doing this, you arrange for the pile to face down on the risers. The pile catches less dirt this way, and the runner will last longer and look better
7. Start the rug at the top of the stairs. If beginning under the nose of the upper landing, fold the fringe to the back of the rug, center the rug at the top of the riser, snug the end up tight under the nose, and fasten the top edge to the riser with a carpet tack at each corner and every 4" across the end. If starting the rug on the upper landing, cut a piece of carpet pad long enough to sit under the rug and extend down over the nose of the landing onto the riser below. Staple the pad in place on the landing and on the riser. Fasten the rug over the pad with a carpet tack at each corner and a tack every 4" across the end and down the edges on the landing. The attachment of the end of the runner on the landing must be good and secure to be safe
8. Smooth the rug down to the bottom of the riser and push it back tight into riser-tread corner so it is gripped by the tackless strips in the corner. The runner should flow smoothly to the bottom of the riser. Do not tuck it back under the nose of the tread and tight to the riser. Be sure the runner is straight on the stairs. Wrap the runner out and over the next tread and check that length used to cover the riser and tread combination is what you expected. If the rug is running "long", you can take up a bit of extra length by re-setting the rug in the tackless corner so it is a little looser (but not much!) on the riser. If the rug is running "short", you can pull it more tightly down the riser, or push it not-quite-so-far into the tackless corner. When happy with the arrangement, pound the runner into the corner with the blunt chisel (you can also use the edge of a narrow piece of plywood, or any other tool you have that will let you tamp the rug into the tackless corner without cutting or piercing the face of the rug). The runner should be solid in the corner, with the tacks of the tackless strips gripping it across its full width
9. Continue down the stairs, doing each riser-tread combination in turn
10. Finish the installation at the bottom. If the rug finishes on the bottom tread with the fringe hanging down over the riser, shorten the last carpet pad so it doesn't show on the riser. Secure the end of the runner with carpet tacks as you did the top. If the runner finishes at the bottom of the bottom riser, tuck the fringe behind and secure with a row of tacks across the end of the rug at the bottom of the riser. If the runner ran longer than you thought, you can even fold a few inches of pile to the back and secure the rug at the bottom of the riser with 1 1/2" or 2" finishing nails. If the runner is to run out a bit onto the floor at the foot of the stairs, put a piece of carpet pad under it, and secure the end and edges of the rug with a few carpet tacks
This is done without the use of steam Cleaning. It's a very labor intensive but gentle cleaning process taking hours, to thoroughly remove deeply embedded soils.
Hand washing allows us to visually see where soil is concentrated and address particular soils, stains and odors during washing. We have earned the trust of dealers, collectors and consumers to handle their cleaning and restoration needs, we have no doubt that you will too. Call us for a free estimate.
This page offers a number of tips about how to clean your Oriental rug. See also our discussion of caring for your rug.
The best way to keep a rug clean is to keep it from getting dirty in the first place. Removing outdoor shoes when entering the house (as people do in most rug-weaving countries) is a good idea if this accords with your lifestyle. Bare-foot or sock-foot traffic is much gentler to a rug than a hard outdoor-shoe sole (or spike heel), and leaving your outdoor shoes at the entrance to the house tracks in much less dirt.
Have your rug cleaned only when it really needs it. For rugs in some areas this will mean a yearly cleaning. Rugs in other areas can go several years and more without needing professional cleaning.
1.Pick up a corner of the rug and while holding it, kick the back of the rug sharply. If a cloud of dirt flies out of the pile, the rug is dirty and needs cleaning. NOTE: some dust and wool fibers are normal!
2.Kneel down on the rug and rub the pile vigorously with your hand in a short arc for 5 to 10 seconds. Look at your fingers and palm: if your hand is dirty, the rug needs cleaning.
3.With the pile facing UP fold part of the rug back upon itself so that the pile opens along a line of knots. Look down into the base of the pile at the foundation of the rug. If the warp and weft look dirty, there is dirt deep in the pile where a home vacuum cleaner cannot reach it. The rug needs cleaning.
It's easy to clean small rugs yourself. The process is best done in a utility room or garage (on a clean floor) or outside on a clean driveway or paved walk on a nice, sunny day
Vacuum both sides well.
Shampoo the rug with cool water and mild liquid soap or rug shampoo (don't use strong detergents, ammonia water or sudsy ammonia water). TEST FOR COLOR RUN IN A SMALL AREA FIRST. Use a soft, long haired brush or a firm, non-shedding sponge. Brush the pile firmly with linear motions in the direction of the nap: don't scrub too vigorously. Wet the nap thoroughly with the soapy water.
Wash fringes with the same soap solution. Use a laundry brush and brush repeatedly away from the pile.
Rinse thoroughly with running water.
Squeeze out excess water--a rubber window squeegee works well. Squeegee the pile repeatedly in the direction of the nap until no more water is forced out.
Lay flat to dry. When the nap feels dry, turn the rug over; the back is probably still damp. DRY THOROUGHLY.
If the pile feels a bit stiff when dry, brush gently or lightly vacuum.
Of the most common spills, urine presents the most severe problem. It can cause severe color run in the rug, and the odor can be very hard to remove or disguise. Urine can also chemically damage the structure of a rug by making the foundation hard and less supple, and the presence of urine in a rug can help attract moths. Repeated wettings can cause the foundation of the rug to loose mechanical strength to the point where the rug cracks and breaks when rolled or folded.
In case of a food spill or urine on a rug, the problem is much more easily handled if the spot is treated promptly, before the spill is allowed to dry. Blot up as much liquid as possible with paper towels or a clean, white cloth. Try to rinse out as much of the spill as possible.
A smaller rug can be taken outside and rinsed with a hose and cool water (try not to saturate the whole rug--it will take much longer to dry if you do). With a larger carpet, the corner or edge can be laid in a plastic dishpan and saturated with cool water or a bucket or plastic garbage can can be placed under the wet area of the carpet and cool water poured through the rug (make a hollow in the carpet over the container before you pour, and don't exceed the capacity of the container under the rug!). Add about 1 cup of white vinegar per gallon to the rinse water--vinegar helps prevent colors from running and will help neutralize the urine odor.
After the rug has been rinsed, blot dry and sponge with rug shampoo or with the solution given below. Let dry thoroughly (drying a wet area of a larger carpet can be hastened by arranging the carpet so that air can circulate both top and bottom--drape the end of the carpet across a lawn chair, or put a sawhorse or painted bench under the rug in the area of the wet spot).
If a pet regurgitates on a rug, you are faced with removing a complex mixture of foodstuffs, saliva, and stomach acids. Depending on the foods involved, this mixture can actually work as a dilute dye to stain the pile a different hue. If a pet regurgitates or defecates on a rug, clean the area immediately by picking up as much material as possible with paper towels or with a clean, white cloth. If necessary, use a tablespoon to scrape up all the foreign material. Blot the area dry and immediately sponge several times with rug shampoo or with the cleaning solution listed below. Don't scrub hard--too much manipulation of the pile can spread the stain. Sponge in the direction of the nap.
*Most Oriental rug dyes are acid-fast. By adding a little white vinegar to the wash water you make the wash water more acidic, and this reinforces the bond between the dyestuff and the wool in the rug, and so helps prevent the colors from running.
Finally, sponge the area with cool, clean water to finish. Use absorbent towels or a firm, non-shedding sponge. Don't use a brush so stiff that it pulls fibers from the pile. Don't scrub hard at the pile. Sponge in the direction of the nap. Place some towels under the spot to keep floor or pad from getting wet. Dry thoroughly. When the nap feels dry, check the back of the rug to be sure the area is completely dry.
Rug Padding As with carpet padding, the main purpose of rug padding is to help prolong the life of the rug.
While carpet padding is standard procedure when a new carpet is being installed , rugs are often laid on the floor without giving padding a second thought.
While some types of rugs can last a long time without padding, all rugs will last longer with the appropriate type of rug padding. The professionals at Aria Orienal Rug can help you select the appropriate type of padding for your rug, and can custom fit it to all types of rugs.
Rug padding helps to soften the impact you make every time you step on your carpet. In addition, rug padding helps keep the rug from sliding and can make the rug more comfortable to walk on. If you are not sure whether or not to get rug padding, you need to think about the type of rug you have. If your rug is thick, you don’t have to have padding, but it would still help prolong the life of your rug. If your rug is thin, soft, older, or structurally damaged, then padding is essential.
Ultimately, however, the choice of whether or not to use rug padding is yours. If you decide to get rug padding, Aria Oriental Rug can help you make the right decisions and get it installed right. If you make the decision to get padding for your rug, it is important to get the right type of rug padding to maximize the life of your rug.
Rug padding can be a made from a wide variety of materials, ranging from synthetic foams to felt, rubber, and polyester. Of these materials, rubber rug padding tends to be the most problematic as it can develop cracks and even begin to crumble at its edges. Some types of rubber rug padding even begin to develop a gummy quality that causes it to stick to the floor—or the rug itself.
Equally problematic are some of the synthetic foams, which often are so light and soft that they provide the rug with little to no protection. Since the idea of rug padding is to protect and prolong the life of the rug, it is important to use a better-quality material than rubber or synthetic foam. Polyester rug padding is an ideal choice, but any rug padding that provides the correct amount of cushion without damaging the rug is a good choice.
A good rule of thumb is to recognize that the best rug padding often provides the least amount of comfort. While softer and lighter rug padding might feel better under your feet, ultimately it will do little or nothing to prolong the life of your rug. Always choose a firmer rug padding with just the right amount of cushion so that it absorbs the impact from your feet.
Aria Oriental Rug has the knowledge and experience to help you choose the best rug padding to meet your needs. Once you have chosen the type of rug padding you want, we can ensure that the thickness is exactly right and that it is custom-installed to fit your rug perfectly.
If you are in the market for rug padding, look no further than Aria Oriental Rug to meet all your rug padding and rug care needs.
Dates are sometimes woven into the end borders or fields of Oriental carpets, usually using Arabic calligraphy (find out about signatures and inscriptions in Oriental rugs). Usually a date in a rug can be taken at face value, but not always. In the past, rugs were often woven by individuals who were functionally illiterate. Someone else would have drawn the date for the weaver to copy, and the person writing the date may have been only semi-literate. In such cases it is common to see Arabic numerals reversed, woven upside down, or so distorted as to make the date difficult to read.
There is also the confusion introduced by some weaving countries switching from a "lunar" calendar to a "solar" calendar in the 1920's. Because the lunar year is shorter than the solar year, a conversion factor needs to be applied to convert an Islamic lunar calendar date to the corresponding Georgian date.
Finally, there is the problem of a weaver perhaps copying a date from an older rug, or even intentionally "pre-dating" a rug in order to create an instant semi-antique. It is also possible to reweave a small part of the rug to add a date, or to reweave a numeral or two of an existing date to add years or decades to the seeming age of the rug.
So--it's fun to look for (and find!) a date in a rug, but don't bet the farm on the accuracy of that date!
Rugs woven and dated in the 17th, 18th, and 19th Centuries almost always use the Islamic lunar calendar. To convert an Islamic lunar date into the Christian or Georgian date, use this formula:
Thus, a woven rug date of "1280" converts like this: Islamic lunar date of 1280 plus 622 minus 38 (38 being 1280 divided by 33.7) = Christian date of 1864
By the 1920's, the governments of both Turkey and "Persia" (which changed its name to Iran at this time) converted to a solar calendar, so that the lengths of their months would match the lengths of months in the West (note that the Caucasus, under Russian control since the early 1800's, tended to use the solar calendar earlier than Turkey or Iran). Year One was still reckoned from the Hegira, Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622AD. To convert an Islamic solar date into the Christian or Georgian date, use this formula:
Islamic solar date + 622 = Christian date [no lunar conversion factor is needed] (Note that this conversion is not completely accurate, as the Islamic and Christian new years occur at different times.)
Western-style numerals are in red; three versions of numbers in Arabic calligraphy are illustrated below them. Arabic numerals are read left-to-right, as in the West: thousands, hundreds, tens, ones.
OK, enough lecture. Pictured here is part of a Bahktiari rug from Iran with a date woven into the guard border. Pick out the Arabic numbers that make up the date. Now change the Islamic date into western numbers, and convert the Islamic date into the Christian date (HEAVY HINT: this is a new-looking rug; it almost certainly was woven after WWII):
This page is intended to help you tell the difference between a handmade Oriental rug and a machine-made imitation.
It's a machine-made rug!
The situation gets more complicated with wool pile rugs made in Turkey, or Egypt, or in central European countries like Romania, Albania, and Bulgaria. All of these countries have produced at least some completely handmade Oriental rugs in the last 50 years, but all have also made large quantities of machine-made Oriental rug imitations.
This comparison picture shows, at the same scale and resolution, a brand-name 3' x 5' machine-made rug next to a 3' x 5' handwoven Kashan from India with a weave of about 140 knots per sq. in.:
Note the strong visual differences between the machine-made and handmade rugs. In particular, the back of the machine-made rug is very different in appearance from the back of the handmade rug. The design is not nearly as colorful on the back of the machine-made rug as it is on the face. Closer examination of the machine-made rug shows why this is so:
The construction of the machine-made rug is very different from the handmade Oriental. There is an overstitch pattern across the whole back of the machine-made rug. You cannot easily distinguish individual knots on the back of the machine-made rug because there aren't any--the overstich construction is what holds the pile material in place. The fringe is clearly applied to the end of the machine-made rug after it's complete, whereas the fringe of the handmade rug is actually made up of the warp strings that come out of the end of the handmade rug.
Over the long history of weaving, the vast majority of handmade rugs have been made by country people who were essentially illiterate. A farmer or shepherd might be able to recognize and write a few numbers and letters, but for almost everyone in a weaving culture there was no possibility of learning to read and write fluently. To this day literacy is still a major governmental goal in most weaving countries.
Despite the difficulties, there has quite often been a desire to mark a rug in a particular way. Among village or country rugs, marking most often involves adding a date to the rug's design. It can be a real challenge to interpret a date woven in a rug!
Much less often do we find a signature in a country or village rug. This is partly because spelling is much more difficult to master than counting (there are lots more letters to remember than numbers, and there is the whole pesky problem of matching letters with all the different sounds of spoken language), but the real reason for finding so few signed village rugs is that by its very nature village or country weaving is anonymous. Too much individuality in the village is a *negative* value. Weavers make designs learned from their parents and relatives, and the village design norm is reinforced by considerable peer pressure. Make a rug too far out in design or mark it flamboyantly and everyone in the village starts to gossip behind your back.
Most all signed rugs are city rugs, rugs woven in a metropolitan area where someone can be found to write the initials or inscription even if the weaver is illiterate. Almost never is the signature the actual mark of the weaver; rather, it is almost always the mark of the entrepreneur or money man who caused the rug to be woven. Usually the inscription is in Arabic, or in Farsi (Persian) written in Arabic script. Usually the inscription is found in a cartouche centered at the end of the rug, inserted in a guard border. Often the signature represents the patronymic of a weaving family:
Sometimes the signature is much more elaborate than just a logo-like combination of a few initials:
Not all text appearing in a cartouche in rug is a signature; some of what looks like text is not really writing at all. There is a long history of city weavers incorporating decorative Arabic calligraphy into their rug designs. Often this script is so ornamental that it is no longer readable as text. This kind of stylized writing used as design is often called "Kufic" or "Kufesque." The rug with the Tabba Tabbai signature pictured above also has panels with "Kufic" designs:
Notice that the left and righthand Kufic panels are mirror images of each other. The panels are designed to evoke a courtly and cultured Islamic tradition, but hold no cognitive content.
Sometimes there is actual, readable text in a rug's design. Most often the text is a verse from the Koran or a verse of secular poetry. This Kashan from Pakistan celebrates the good life of wine, women, and song with a picture and appropriate text:
Does the presence of a sigature or inscription make a rug more valuable? Despite what the dealer is likely to tell you, probably not. A number of city rug types like Isfahan, Kashan, Nain, and Ghoum (from Iran), Hereke and Kayseri (from Turkey), and fine Bokharas and Kashans from Pakistan are signed. Finding a signature in the design of one of these rugs is sort of like noticing the little "Body by Fisher" plaque that GM used to stick on the doorsills of Buicks and Oldsmobiles: it's OK that it's there, but you wouldn't pay extra money to get it if it wasn't.
In any event, have a look at the borders of your rug(s) and see if you can spot a signature or inscription that you may have overlooked before!
There are basically two kinds of "knots" used to make most pile-woven Oriental rugs: "Persian" and"Turkish" knots (but see also how Tibetan rugs are made). Both Persian (Senneh) and Turkish (Ghiordes) knots are usually tied around pairs of warp strings (but see "juffi knots" below).
The Persian or Senneh knot is asymmetric and may be open to either the right or left. These four Persian knots are open to the right.
Turkish or Ghiordes knots are symmetric. This example shows four Turkish knots.
Jufti or "false" knots can be either Persian or Turkish style. Jufti knots are tied around four warps instead of the normal two. A rug made with jufti knots uses half the material and takes only half as much time to make -- but probably will only last half as long! It is common with some rug types (such as BOKHARAS) to find areas of jufti knots interspersed with regular Persian knots.
Who uses which knot type? Most weaving areas use the Persian knot. Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and some areas of northwestern Iran use the Turkish knot.
This page will help you understand the terms used to describe Oriental rugs
Warps are the parallel strings stretched from loom beam to loom beam upon which rows of knots are tied. Most weavers use cotton for warp material if it is available because it is easier to weave a flat, straight rug on cotton warps than on wool warps (wool yarn is more elastic than cotton string, and is more affected by changes in humidity). Weavers who are semi-nomadic pastoralists (i.e. not farmers) are much more likely to use wool than cotton for warp and weft.
Wefts run across the width of the rug, over and under the warp strings and between rows of knots. Most often wefts are made of cotton, wool, or silk . Wefts help hold rows of knots in place and strengthen the structure of the rug.
Knots are tied by looping yarn around pairs of warps and cutting off the standing end. The ends of the "knot" become the pile or nap of the rug.
Edge bindings are made by wrapping several warps at the edge of the rug with yarn to reinforce this part of the rug.
End finishes hold knots and wefts from working off the rug's warp strings. Many rug types have a flat-woven kilim selvedge at both ends.
Fringes are formed by gathering and knotting together bundles of warp strings at both ends of the rug after the rug has been cut from the loom. The knots in these bundles of warp strings keep pile knots and end finishes tight at the rug's ends.
The main border is the widest decorative design around the outside of the rug; guard borders are the narrow decorative designs flanking the main border.
The medallion is the round, oval, or polygonal design element that sometimes occupies the center of the field.
Corner brackets or spandrels are designs which sometimes fill the corners of the field.
Most weavers work on fixed, vertical looms (although some semi-nomadic weavers in areas of Afghanistan, Turkey, and Iran still use the more portable horizontal ground loom).
A simple vertical loom is little more than a sturdy frame, usually made of wooden timbers, designed to hold taut the warp strings upon which the weaver ties rows of knots.
A heddle is used to separate alternate warps so that the shuttle carrying the weft string can be passed between warps from one side of the rug to the other.
More sophisticated vertical looms have their upper and lower beams constructed as rollers. A roller loom lets the weaver roll the completed part of a rug under and to the back of the loom, allowing the construction of a longer carpet on a loom of the same vertical size.
Most weavers work with a hooked knife, or gollab in one hand (top tool in photo).
A weaver uses a finger to push the yarn through the warps, then uses the hook on the knife to catch the yarn behind the warps and pull it to the face of the rug. After the knot is tied the weaver cuts the yarn with a flick of the blade.
After several rows of knots are tied across the width of the loom, the weaver uses a comb or beater (middle tool in photo) made of metal or wood to beat down the warps and rows of knots to consolidate the weave.
After a strip of pile an inch or so wide is woven across the width of the loom, the weaver uses scissors to clip the nap back to nearly its final heigth.
The scissors have handles bent so that the blades can cut flush with the face of the rug. Like the knife and comb, the scissors are made by the blacksmith down the street in the village: when they get dull, a boy runs them back for sharpening.
We all know that area rugs add warmth and finesse to any room with its rich colors and elegant look. carpets are made in different ways. They are either machine-made or handmade. Rugs allow self-expression while providing proportion to a room. The following are important factors when it comes to area rugs: construction, design, and fiber materials. However, when choosing area rugs for your home, there are several things you should keep in mind, colors, overall theme of your decor, and the space available in each room are all important considerations.
Machine-made area rugs are creating in massive quantities using power tufting machines and looms with almost any type of yarn. They can be made quickly and easily with different textures, styles and sizes - therefore are less expensive than handmade rugs. There are many differences between tufted and woven rugs. The woven carpets have the pile face woven along with the backing, which makes them strong and hard-wearing. In the construction of tufted carpets, the pile is inserted into the backing material with needles.
Handmade Rug vary with the amount of people who are involved in its construction. Sometimes it starts with one person using a tool to tuft the rug by hand. Other times it might start with a person who is actually spinning the yarn and knotting each rug one yarn at a time. In cases such as these, a single 6'x9' rug can take 9 months or longer to create. Handmade rugs are made with natural yarns like wool and silk. Some antique silk and wool rugs can be very valuable and have been sold for hundreds of thousands of dollars.
Chinese area rugs are traditionally made from wool or silk. The pile surface is sometimes sculpted for a relief effect. Colors can be light such as peach, white, yellow and shades of blue. The patterns are widely spaced with more background color showing. Unlike most oriental rugs, the motifs on Chinese rugs do not unite in order to create one design; they stand alone. Also, unlike most oriental rugs, Chinese designs are very literal rather than decorative; most motifs have very exact meanings. Some Chinese sub-styles include Ningxia, Baodou, Gansu, Peking, and Mongolia.
The finest Persian rugs were woven between the 16th and 18th century. True "Persian Carpets" are made in Central Asia. They feature wool or silk and the Persian Knot construction. Patterns are intricate and highly detailed. The basic background colors are deep reds or blues. Persian styles are the most diverse styles worldwide. There are over fifty different Persian styles woven in Iran and other countries such as India, Pakistan, China, and some European countries.
Until recently, dhurrie rugs were considered little more than the cheapest. In the United States, the dhurrie gained a kind of eye-rolling recognition as the standard furnishing of dorm rooms and apartments. However, thanks to some textile scholars and rug experts, dhurrie rugs have gained popularity and now are widely used in home decorating. Dhurrie rugs were traditionally woven on flat, horizontal looms. The warp, or the lengthwise yarn that is attached to the loom, is never visible in dhurrie weaving, except as fringe. Even when different colors are introduced to create a pattern, the basic technique results in an unbroken woven surface. Another characteristic of a dhurrie weave is that it produces a rug that is reversible.
Aubusson rugs are originated in 18th century France. This type of rug is a tapestry-like flat-weave rug. This weaving technique was flourishing during this time and Aubussons were abundant. Today the art of Aubusson making is flourishing again with many skillful weavers learning this ancient master craft. Our Aubusssons are handcrafted using 100% wool. Each rug consists of up to 40-70 different shades of colors, thus creating clarity and dept not found in other Aubussons. They are soft and colorful and will add life and luxury to any living room, dining room, or bedroom.
Rug wear is inevitable, but frequently rotating your rug 180 degrees will help equalize the effects of wear. Dampness can cause mildew or deterioration of the threads and fabrics of your rug. Avoid soaking your rug when cleaning a spill. Moths are another threat to a rug’s longevity. To protect it, move your rug from time to time and keep it exposed to air and light.
Continual exposure to sunlight will eventually cause a rug’s colors to fade and make the fabric brittle. Display your rug in such a way that it is protected against too much sunlight.
If you intend to store a rug for an extended length of time, make sure that the rug is clean. It should be treated with moth repellent prior to storage and should be rolled tightly. Wrap the rug in a cloth or a sheet, do not use plastic because the rug needs to breathe. Store in a dry, cool well ventilated area to avoid mildew or heat damage.
Pile crushed by heavy furniture can be restored by spraying the area with a little water and brushing with a soft brush.
Always vacuum your rug in the direction of the nap (to determine the nap, run your hand across the pile towards the fringe, the light side is the nap). Avoid using vacuum on the fringe as the fringe may break or tear. Sweeping your rug with a broom once a week is highly recommended to remove dirt and bring out the sheen. Consider not using the beater bar.
We also recommend that you avoid vacuuming on a very thin pile rug. If you have to vacuum please do not use the roller brush in the vacuum. You may use the attachment for upholstery cleaning on the rug or alternatively use a broom.
Oriental rugs should be washed on a regular basis. Depending on the type of traffic your rug receives it is a good idea to wash your rug every three to five years. It is best to have your rug cleaned by a professional who specializes in oriental rugs. NEVER steam or chemically clean your rugs as these cleaning methods deplete the natural oils of the pile. Also, do not put your rugs in the washing machine.
Deal with spills immediately. Use a spoon to scoop up as much of the spill as possible. Dilute smaller spills with water. Blot, but do not rub, the area with a paper towel until all moisture is removed. Always blot from the outer edges towards the center to prevent the spill from spreading. Once the area is dry, brush pile lightly with a brush to restore texture.
Not every stain should be attacked with water. Common food or beverage stains can be treated with same mild detergent used to wash delicate clothes, diluted with a small amount of water.
An ink stain from a ballpoint pen can be removed by spraying the area with hairspray, letting it dry and brushing the area with a water and vinegar solution. Oil based stains are best treated with dry cleaning solvents.
The great thing about handmade oriental area rugs is that they do not really need much maintenance. Most area oriental rugs will last several decades, and in the case of finer rugs of higher quality, an oriental rug can last for centuries.
Walking on oriental area rugs will not hurt them, in fact, many corporations use handmade oriental rugs in foyers or in front of elevators where traffic is highest. Although these rugs can easily withstand such abuse, they will definitely last longer with a little intelligent care.
The followings are some tips to help you keep your rugs clean and last longer: Vacuum your area rugs regularly, make sure to go back and forth in the same direction over the entire rug (avoiding the fringes). If you are vacuuming with a beater brush, we suggest you set the brush so it just touches the top of the pile and moves easily across the rug. When vacuuming with a carpet tool, ease the suction of the vacuum by adjusting it accordingly. Be sure to periodically vacuum the back of the rug. Rotate your area rugs as often as possible, one or two times a year, especially when you notice the high traffic areas of your rug starting to look dirty or the nap has lost its original direction or shape. Rotating your rugs will allow them to wear more evenly, maintaining their original appearance and value. Also, rotate your rugs according to the amount of direct sunlight. Over time direct sunlight can fade the dyes of your rugs. Padding will stabilize and protect your area rugs shape, enhancing the value and making your Rugs safer to walk on.
When considering having a rug repaired, evaluate the cost of the repair to the value and your personal attachment to the rug. Only allow a reputable and knowledgeable craftsman/weaver to restore or repair your area rugs. The most common repairs are re-fringing and over-rounding the sides.
We suggest re-fringing, where the weaver will use the selvage or a minimal part of the rug, rather than adding a fringe to the rug. [A stitch or blind-stitch should be used to hold the rug in place. If several lines of the rug are removed to make the fringe, the weaver should consider using a cashmere stitch (a line or two of wool to match the design around the rug) to enhance the look of the repair.] If the corners of the rug are damaged due to wear, we suggest having the weaver secure them or re-weave them.
When the entire siding of the rug needs to be repaired, the weaver either over-rounds by hand or by sewing a cord with a matching color to the sides. We would suggest repairing the rug the original way it was made. Make sure that the weaver is able to match the wool color. The colors used in Persian rugs should be easily matched but matching the colors in an old Chinese carpet may prove to be more difficult.
If your Oriental Rug is worn or has been damaged, you will need to locate an experienced weaver with expertise in all the different types of knots and with an ample supply of wool colors. You may even want to look at some of the weaver's current projects because re-weaving can be the most costly repair done to your rugs.
If the fringe is uneven, the edges can be trimmed.
If parts of your rug are curled, steaming will usually alleviate the problem. We suggest steaming with an iron over a clean, damp Turkish towel. Be careful to keep the iron moving over the towel and not to touch the iron directly on the rug. Also, be sure to consider the flooring and padding underneath your rug.
If your rug buckles, a blocking/stretching process could improve the rug's shape. We would suggest trying to steam the back of the rug, first before having it blocked. If you then decide to have your rug blocked, before proceeding you should discuss the process with your Oriental Rug dealer.
If the pile/nap of your rug is indented or laying the wrong way, steaming (with an iron as mentioned before) the areas should neutralize the pile and greatly improve your rug's appearance. Before the area dries, be sure to comb the pile to blend with rest of the rug. When the area is dry, the nap should be laying in its natural direction.
If you plan to store your area rugs, we suggest having them cleaned, wrapped in brown Kraft-paper, and covered with a waterproof material. Rodents and moths are a primary concern, so it is advisable to include moth flakes and keep your rug in a dry area above ground.
Moths and carpet beetles can destroy an Oriental Rug. Check the edges and area of your rug under furniture for any infestation. Act immediately if you see any bugs or eggs. You will probably need to have your entire house sprayed and all wool rugs cleaned. Check your wool clothes if there is a problem.
To maintain their original colors, handmade area rugs should be cleaned on a regular basis. Every five to ten years they should be hand-washed by a professional whose references have been thoroughly checked. Never steam clean or chemically clean your area rugs. Do not ever put into a washing machine or otherwise immerse in water.
Many Persian area rugs have slight differences of color and tone in large color fields.
this rug was made by hand. This abrash can be caused by nomadic changes-of-residence, and the weaver's decision to complete the rug at his new location. Waiting for another 'crop' of wool from his sheep can take the longest. Then finding local flora to make more dye is the always-uncertain element. Inevitably there is a minor or major difference, but this is the inherent charm that these rugs display, by bringing us closer to the daily struggles of these primitive nomads. Of course, some slightly more sophisticated weavers sometimes add 'a touch of abrash to increase the apparent age of a tribal or city rug. This adds to the charm and authenticity of your hand-made work of art.
These will flatten and disappear with regular walking, and a corner of the rug that does not lay flat should be kept under a pile of books, or similar, for a few days.
Try to use coasters under all furniture legs, to spread the weight of especially thin legs or casters over a larger area. Old glass coasters are best, still available from some fine antique dealers, or estate and rummage sales.
Please be aware that your entire rug may seem many shades darker or lighter, depending on the direction of its pile to the main source of light! This is mainly because of the high lanolin content in fine wool.
Try it in each direction to determine which suits your room better, or the particular season of the year. Rotating it by season, or when you set the clocks back or forward, will allow traffic patterns to fall on new areas, thus extending the life of your area rug.
The subtle changes of color from dark to light, or vice versa, can be a welcome design boost in any interior.
Small domestic friends that have not yet been house-broken should be kept far, far away from your new heirloom
Under-padding is used to provide airflow between your floor and the rug, in addition to stabilizing the rug. Airflow allows the rug to breath, which in turn will extend the life of the rug. Under-padding also prevents the crushing and wearing of the pile from heavy use, another way of greatly extending the life of your rug.
Use a suction extension only. Do not use a rotor vacuum or a beater bar. Vacuuming should be done in the direction of the pile only, as one would stroke a cat.